Land use denotes how humans use the biophysical or ecological properties of land. Land use is characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it (Jansen and Di Gregorio, 2004). Human activities are a major factor contributing to change in ecosystems by the way we exploit its. It is well known that ecosystem provides a series of services and functions such as provision of habitat for biodiversity, but we mix place this opportunity for insecurity such as, banditry, kidnapping, cattle rustling and farmers-herders clashes and religious crisis.
This study concentrated on using space based technology to analyzed existing forests reserve and security surveillance in the federal capital territory. Forest related habitation for criminals hide out will be applied to Landsat Operational land Imager (OLI) imageries to assess usefulness of remote sensing and GIS for security purpose. ERDAS Imagine version 2014 was adopted for classification and Arc GIS 10.4 environments to process, manage, and analysis the raster and thematic datasets.
The parameters used in this research are: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land use/land cover (LU/LC), buffering and digital terrain model (DTM). It shows that 0.5 value in NDVI is forested area, while -0.08 value is other land cover. In the multiple buffer analysis shown that people leave in settlements for about 5 kilometer (km) away from the forest are more likely to be more prone to criminals attack than 10 km and 15 km settlements are the least attack to any form of insecurity. Land use/land cover map provides ranges of classes for operatives. Digital terrain model and coordinate points provided terrain and strategic location where security operatives can carry out needful operation.
Insecurity generally disrupts development of nations and societies. That is, where there is conflict there is often underdevelopment. Insecurity is a critical issue that has hampered industrialization and sustainable development in Nigeria and particular the Africa at large. Space Technology has been adopted in the developed World to combat the problem of insecurity, uproar and other related Crimes. One of the approaches of addressing the problem of insecurity is the use of satellite. It is important to note that the role a satellite can play is not limitless. This is because the work a satellite does depend on the payload it carries.
Finally, this report lays out series of recommendations and they are summarized as follows: There is need to periodically carry out surveillance forest monitoring using space based technology of the forests. This would assist to monitor report and detect the movements, encroachers and other activities of the criminals in the forests. The government should establish a well-equipped military barracks/security posts around the forests and the military should regularly carrying out combat operations of the forests to flush out the criminals and destroy their bases and hideouts. The security forces should launch an attack on all the forests to ensure that the insurgents, armed robbers, thieves, unknown gunmen and any other criminals are dislodged. Forest guards should be trained and well equipped to effectively deal with any armed threat from any group, encroachment and other illegal/criminal activities. Adequate funds should be allocated to the forestry sector. This would enable the sector perform its duties and ensure that criminals and insurgents do not take over the forest reserves.
Land use denotes how humans use the biophysical or ecological properties of land. Land use is characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it (Jansen and Di Gregorio, 2004). Human activities are a major factor contributing to change in ecosystems by the way we exploit its. It is well known that ecosystem provides a series of services and functions such as provision of habitat for biodiversity, but we mix place this opportunity for insecurity such as, banditry, kidnapping, cattle rustling and farmers-herders clashes and religious crisis. Nigeria is being faced with rise insecurity within the country on daily basis and the speed with which these evil is perpetrated in Nigeria leading to the loss of lives remains worrisome. Most of these evil perpetrations are carried out in the forest.
In Nigeria, there is no presence of authorities in ours forests and either non-existent or, at best, sporadic. This has led to forest areas being poorly managed, which in turn has led to them being exploited by criminals and posing a security threat. This is one of major reasons for the invasion and use of forested landscape for criminal activities in Nigeria. It founds that the forests are used by terrorists, kidnappers, cannabis cultivators, cattle rustlers and robbers. This is because they offer shelter and have resources that can support militants like food or illegal logging to finance their activities. The phenomenon isn’t new. Across the world forests have been exploited as a source of cover from which to launch attacks and use in defense. What makes the Nigerian situation problematic is that criminals have been able to exploit forests because of poor management. By law, forests fall under the government’s mandate, but the Nigerian government has not been able to secure them because of their huge size, lack of personnel and poor surveillance technology.
All the Nigerian Forests are meant to be a government protected area, and almost all of these forests are rich in wildlife, but it’s overrun by militants. For example, in North east of the Country Boko Haram has invaded the forest for many years and made it into one centre of their operations. It sprawls across four states and extends into neighbouring Cameroon, Niger and Chad.
Kidnapping has become a major crime in Nigeria. Boko Haram’s kidnapping of schoolgirls, for example, is well-known. Forests are a useful hiding place for the group, particularly when the number of victims runs into the hundreds. Crime syndicates also use thick forestland between Abuja and Kaduna for their kidnapping activities. They abduct victims for ransom on highways and then hide them in forests. For a long time, forest cover has also been used by members of cults to carry out murders.
The implication is that Nigeria symbolizes unsafe place of abode and has also been included among one of the terrorist countries of the world. Therefore, investors, foreigners, expatriate and even indigenes of Nigeria are scared about investing and committing their hard-earned resources in lucrative businesses in Nigeria. Insecurity, therefore, refers to the state of fear, anxiety, restlessness and uncertainty. This is proven by the high rate of bombings and killings in Nigeria community for political and economic related assassinations as well as the politically influenced communal wars making the job of security agents in Nigeria porous and insignificant.
Therefore, different forest within a community need to be critically examined and monitored through the use of space technology as a measure to curb this act. Land-cover communicates to the different features on Earth’s surface (Lillesand et al., 2007) with the composition and characteristics of Earth surface elements (Karwariya and Goyal, 2011) including natural and anthropogenic features, and thus describes the Earth’s physical state in terms of the natural environment and the man-made structures (Karwariya and Tripathi, 2012) which can be mapped using satellite imagery with spectral signatures. Satellite data is a significant and useful tool for monitoring and management of forest resources.
1.2 Aim and Objectives
1.2.1 Aim: To assess Federal Capital Territory forests for effective security surveillance.
- Determination of current land use and land cover of Federal Capital Territory (FCT)
- Determination of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to determine possible hideout of terrorist
III. Determination of digital terrain model of the Federal Capital Territory
- Determination and validation of existing forests in the Federal Capital Territory
- Buffering analysis of forests and roads network within the Federal Capital Territory
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Insecurity generally disrupts development of nations and societies. That is, where there is conflict there is often underdevelopment. Insecurity is a critical issue that has hampered industrialization and sustainable development in Nigeria and particular the Africa at large. Nigeria which is perceived as the giant of Africa has witnessed an unprecedented incidence of insecurity ranging from the activities of Insurgencies, Armed Robber Attacks, kidnapping, political/religious crisis, and murder, destruction of oil facilities by militants, abduction and trafficking.
These challenges have made security a pivotal issue that has culminated in the allocation of country’s huge amount of resources to the protection of lives and properties. It has also made government to divert resources meant for developmental purposes to security. Also, the alarming rate at which the economic, political, social and religious affairs of the nation are dwindling at present is a real symptom of insecurity Global Peace Index (2012). Although, there are several attempts to curb the menace of terrorist in the country, such as traditionally relay information to military that no more reliable in this dispensation. However, space technology has been excellent tools to map, track and monitor insurgency. Images from the satellites can help security operatives understand the terrain better; see its changing nature daily, and therefore plan and carry out their operations more efficiently.
Space Technology has been adopted in the developed World to combat the problem of insecurity, uproar and other related Crimes. One of the approaches of addressing the problem of insecurity is the use of satellite. It is important to note that the role a satellite can play is not limitless. This is because the work a satellite does depend on the payload it carries. The payload is the cargo of equipment the satellite carries into space to do the work for which it is being launched. Images from the satellites can help security operatives understand the terrain better; see its changing nature daily, and therefore plan and carry out their operations more efficiently. Access to remote sensing images from satellites for security planning like in rescuing abducted schoolgirls will, therefore, not be a big problem. A few Earth observation satellites with expensive, high-resolution imagers are commonly used in espionage as well as in intelligence gathering in the fight against terrorism. They do reconnaissance like communication eavesdropping, photo surveillance and radar imaging using synthetic aperture radar at night or through thick cloud cover to get clear pictures.
Sustainable Development Goal for this work is Goal 11 target 2, which says:
By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable
STUDY AREA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Study Area
2.1.1 The Study Location
Federal Capital Territory (FCT) falls within latitude 9.2290 N and 9.3740 N of the Equator and longitudes 6.7360 E and 7.6180 E and total Elevation of 536m (Figure 1) and a total population of 1,402,201 (2006 population census) with a land mass of 923,768 square kilometres. The Federal Capital Territory is bounded on the north by Kaduna State, on the west by Niger State, on the east and south-east by Plateau State, and on the south-west by Kogi State.
Figure 1Study Area Map
The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) falls within the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic zone of the West African sub-region. Patches of rain forest, however, occur in the Gwagwa plains, especially in the rugged terrain to the southeastern parts of the territory, where a landscape of gullies and rough terrain is found. The Federal Capital Territory form one of the few surviving occurrences of the mature forest vegetation in FCT of Nigeria. Urban forests are made up of the trees, shrubs, and other vegetative covers that play important role in human life. Urban forests serve important roles such as tree species diversity conservation and protection of fragile ecosystem; development of parks and event centres for relaxation and social engagements; provision of vegetable and fruits or seeds for foods and medicines; and purification of air, wind break, and beautification of the environment (Nowak and Dwyer 2007).
2.2 DATA ACQUISITION AND SOURCE
Table 1data used for the work
|LANDSAT 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)
|Road shape file
|Forest shape file
2.2.1 Remote Sensing Image: In order to study current land use and land cover (LULC) of Federal Capital Territory; 2021 image [LANDSAT 8 (Operational Land Imager)] and SRTM were obtained for the month of April from United States Geological Survey (USGS) (http:// glovis.usgs.gov), Earth Science Data Interface. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) extends to band 12 with 30 meter resolution, while SRTM was only 30 meter resolution as seen in table 1.
2.2.2 Roads network Data: Roads shape file of Federal Capital Territory was acquired from Grid3 in Strategic Space Applications a Department in National Space Research and Development Agency.
Table 2 Software used
|Global Positioning System (GPS)
2.2.3 Data Analysis: Image pre‑processing and classification is very important in order to establish a more direct affiliation between the acquired data and biophysical phenomena (Abd El-Kawya et al. 2011). Due to acquisition system and platform movements, remotely-sensed data from satellites are generally geometrically distorted. The satellite data were imported into ERDAS 2014 software in an image format for geometric correction. After the images were geo-referenced, combined and subset on the basis of Area of Interest (AOI). The satellite data were studied by assigning per-pixel signatures and differentiating the land area into five classes on the bases of the specific Digital Number (DN) value of different landscape elements. The delineated classes were Built-up, Forest, Farm-land, Water-body, Rock-outcrop and Bare-surface area.
2.2.4 Vegetation Analysis of Forest Reserve
The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The NDVI will be performed from the ratio of band 4 and 5 in OLI images data will be applied for monitoring vegetation in the study area in the year 2021.
NDVI = NIR – R
NIR +R Where: NIR and R are the reflectance or radiances in the near-infrared and red spectral channels, respectively
Digital Terrain Model Analysis: The digital terrain model (DTM) analysis was carried out in ArcGIS of spatial analyst tools and data management in three D to produce two D view and three D view of digital terrain model.
Buffer: Multiple buffering was applied to validated forests in the study area in the ratio of 5, 10 and 15 kilometer (km) and 50 meter to road shape file.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Knowledge about land use and land cover (LU/LC) has become important to overcome the challenges of managing the forest, loss of productive ecosystems, and deterioration of environmental quality, provision of habitat for biodiversity and monitoring of activity in the forests. The spatial analysis carried out to describe land use and land cover in this report is: Forest, Built up, Water body, Rock outcrop, and Bare surface area were the major land use and land cover classes to determine how LU/LC can be utilize for effective intelligent in Federal Capital Territory (Figure 2).
Figure 2 Land use and land cover of Federal Capital Territory
Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). This index defines values from -0.08 to 0.5, as shown in figure 3, basically representing greens, yellow and red. Where negative values are mainly formed from water body and any class close to it, the values close to zero are primarily formed from rocks and bare soil, while positive value represent forested area. All the values (from -1 to 1) of the NDVI function correspond to particular areas of the land use and land cover. NDVI is preferable for vegetation monitoring since it helps to compensate for changes in lighting conditions, surface slope, exposure, and other external factors. For the purpose of this work, the red areas denote forest cover, which are the positive part of the NDVI and also an area of interest. The green and the yellow areas, which is negative part was classified as other land.
Figure 3 Normalized difference vegetation index of Federal Capital Territory
A mathematical representation model of a given area is what is termed digital terrain model (DTM). The model was carried out in this work for its important use and value as far as this work is concern. This model shows details terrain of the Federal Capital Territory to determine the low level area and the high level as to determine appropriate locations to view and survey large areas for the purpose of surveillance. This model was produced in two forms as showed in figure 4 and 5 respectively. The figure 4 is digital terrain model in 2D form, while figure 5 is digital terrain model in 3D form. The two models are the same, they serve the same purpose, but the only difference is just the view for its usefulness. The coordinate points of highest elevation in some areas area also recorded in Table 3 for further use.
Figure 4 Federal Capital Territory of digital terrain model in 2D form
Table 3 Coordinate point of some strategic high elevation
Figure 5 Federal Capital Territory digital terrain model in 3D form
The figure 6 below shows an existing forest in the Federal Capital Territory, which can be a hide-out for the terrorist within the community. These forests are; Buga hill forest, Gaida, Udo and Tukoki in Kuje area council. Forest in Bwari area council includes; Chihurma, Chikwei, Kusoru and Shaba. Maje Abuchi forest reserve is between Gwagwalada and Niger state and also Tufa forest is located in Abaji local government area. Among all the forest, there is none without road network, which is one ample opportunity for terrorist to perpetrate their evil.
Figure 6 validated forests reserve in Federal Capital Territory
The figure 7 below shows different buffered zone in all validated forests in Federal Capital Territory that comprises of Buga hill, NG_61/Gaida, Udo, Tukoki, Chihurma, Chikwei, Kusora, Shaba, Maje-Abuchi and Tufa respectively. The buffer analysis was performed in three ranges, which include; 5 kilometer (km) 10 km and 15 km that is in order of high risk, medium risk and low risk. The settlements around these forests are at risk for kidnap, but it depends on the distance of settlement to the forest. From the analysis, a lot of settlements are within the 5 km buffer, which is highly vulnerable to kidnap and others criminal attack. 10 km settlement away from the forest in the other hand is moderately saved, but it does not mean they should not be vigilant and be watchful. The third parts of these multiple buffered is 15 km away from the forests that consider to be least vulnerable to kidnap or other attack. Why these settlements considered being less susceptible to criminal attack is that the areas move further way from hotspots vulnerability to insecurity. Travelers within any of these forests at a particular time when bandit want to carry out operation can be at risk because road networks passed through them.
Figure 7 Forest buffered zone in the Federal Capital Territory
Figure 7a highly vulnerable communities in Buga hill forest reserve in Kuje Area Council
Figure 7b highly vulnerable communities in Chihuma forest reserve in Bwari Area Council
Figure 7c highly vulnerable communities in Chikwei forest reserve in Bwari Area Council
Figure 7d highly vulnerable communities in Kusoru forest reserve in Bwari Area Council
Figure 7d highly vulnerable communities in Maje-Abuchi forest reserve in Gwagwalada Area Council
Figure 7e highly vulnerable communities in NG-61 forest reserve in Kuje Area Council
Figure 7f highly vulnerable communities in Odu forest reserve in Kuje Area Council
Figure 7g highly vulnerable communities in Shaba forest reserve in Bwari Area Council
Figure 7h highly vulnerable communities in Tufa forest reserve in Abaji Area Council
Figure 7i highly vulnerable communities in Tukoki forest reserve in Kuje Area Council
Table 4 Highly Vulnerable Communities around FCT Forest Reserves
|Huni Gwari 2
|Gaje 1 Village
|Daban Din Yangbogu
|Angwan Ma goro
|Kaima Fulani Camp
|Sabon Gurara 2
|Good Home Estats
Figure 8 shows the road buffering of Federal Capital Territory network of 50 meters (m) away from the road. Why this is important is that it is one of the strategies to combat insecurity in the high way. When both side of the road can be cleared to 50 m apart, drivers or travelers can see far distance. Should in case, if there is security threat in the high way drivers can quickly maneuver and take a reasonable measure to avoid attack from kidnapers. In the same vein, when both side of the road is clear it will be difficult for criminal people to block the high way. Some time ago when rate of kidnaping was high in Lokoja to Okene road, Governor Yahaya Bello of Kogi State adopted this same method and it addressed the situation.
Figure 8 Federal Capital Territory Road Buffered
Remote sensing and geographic information system are complementary technologies that, when combined, enable improved monitoring, mapping, and management of forest resources. Remote sensing and GIS provide detail survey of the forest, location, composition, and distribution of forest resources. As one of the principal sources of forest management information, these databases support a wide range of management decisions to any development plan of long-term strategies. From results in Figure 2, it can be seen how various distribution of land use and land cover of federal capital territory are distributed according to geographic distribution. These particular land use and land cover include; bare surface, built up, forest, rock outcrop and water body areas. As far these areas can be identified, the major concern is forested area, which has been serving as hiding place for criminal elements.
As we all known, forests are isolated areas where nobody lives and as such can be used by those who oppose the government or societal values and carry out activities that are against the law such as theft, armed robbery, banditry, kidnaping and attack on security personnel. To be in fact, this problems is no peculiar to Nigeria alone In Kenya, gunmen believed to be members of Al-shabab hiding in two forests in Lamu county carried out attacks that kills 60 people, destroyed people houses and farmlands (Daily Nation, 2014). In different parts of the world there are examples of forests becoming security threats as some people use the forests abusively to carry out their unlawful activities.
However, our forests need to be monitor with available resources. These resources still rely on remote sensing and GIS, why because it can maps, measures and monitors the extent of the forest and determine any changes that might happen to the forest. Therefore, figure 3, shows the extent of validated forests in the federal capital territory and possible measure to adopt and control them in case of any infiltration. Category of different height in particular forest with respect to their coordinate point is showed in figure 4, and table 3 for proper intelligent monitoring so as to secure the area from habitation of criminal element. So also, figure 5 in the other hand is an excellent one in the domain of remote sensing and GIS for intelligent monitoring. The highest height is 800m, which is in Bwari and AMAC forest. The next height is 644.4m which, can be found in Abaji and Kuje forest. Gwagwalada and Kwali happen to be lowland and the highest height here is 333.3m.
Buffering usually creates two areas: one area that is within a specified distance to selected real world features and the other area that is beyond. The area that is within the specified distance is called the buffer zone. A buffer zone is any area that serves the purpose of keeping real world features distant from one another. Buffer zones are often set up to protect the environment, which include protect people from danger, natural disasters and possibly prevent from violence. Common types of buffer zones may be green areas, residential and commercial areas and border zones between countries. Buffer zone in this work as shown in figure 7 is between the forest and residential where criminals can hide in the forest and attack residence near to the forest and in figure 8 where possible solution can be provided to commuters by clearing the bush around 50m away in the two side of road to prevent any attack to traveler and allow driver to view long distance for any attempt of attack.
Land use and land cover information is one of spatial patterns readily obtainable by classifying remotely sensed data. Habitat assessment is typically geographic information system based it involves selecting data layers likely to be of value in developing predictive models for the occurrence and distribution of individual species or species assemblages, as well as the identification of species useful as indicators of ecological condition. The use of remotely sensed data together with other spatial datasets integrated within a GIS environment has greatly enhanced the habitat assessment process. The influences of growing human activities and the attention of human population into forest zones are being felt throughout in the Federal Capital Territory. Evidence about varying designs of land use and land cover over time in forest areas is thus important, not only for the organization and development of these areas, but also for an improved understanding of the association among landscape dynamics and forest ecology responses. Satellite remote sensing permits a surveying, synoptic viewing of huge areas, thus providing the potential for a geographically and temporally detailed assessment of land use and mapping in forest areas. Images from the satellites can help security operatives understand the terrain better; see its changing nature daily, and therefore plan and carry out their operations more efficiently. This work is without any doubt a template for the Nigeria government to tap into the seemingly latent potential in the space technology for mapping, monitoring and tracking system in tackling insecurity in the Country.
Ministries Department and Agencies that will implement the recommendation
Federal Ministry of Finance
Federal Ministry of Defense
Federal Ministry of Justice
Federal Ministry of internal Affair
Federal Ministry of POLICE Affair
Office of the Security Adviser
Office of the Anthony General of Federation
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