A GIS-BASED ASSESSMENT OF EMISSION HOTSPOTS IN ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL (AMAC), ABUJA
ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE DIVISION
DEPARTMENT OF STRATEGIC SPACE APPLICATION
NATIONAL SPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
THE NATIONAL SPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT
SDGS ADDRESSED BY THE PROJECT
LIST OF MDAS THAT WILL IMPLEMENT THE RECOMMENDATION
This report presents the preliminary findings of air quality project delivered in 2021 by the Environment and Climate Change (ECC) Division to investigate emission hotspots in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Abuja using GIS-based approach. At the time of the project, the Environment and Climate Change (ECC) Division was not utilizing ground-based in-situ measurements of air quality or greenhouse gases in the research because the project is to be carried out in phases, but this is the Phase I.
The use of satellite Sentinel-5P emission data was however utilized in the research for validation. The use of such data was adopted in this project due to increasing popularity in air quality research and the scientific community. For instance, the Tropospheric Measuring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-5 Precursor (Sentinel-5P) satellite was providing air pollutant datasets with higher spatial resolution.
The overall goal of the project was to identify and take spatial inventory of emission hotspots locations in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). To deliver this goal, the following specific objectives were considered that served as a necessary guide: (1) to conduct reconnaissance survey in the study area; (2) to identify emission hotspot locations in the study area; (3) to validate the hotspot sampled locations with Sentinel-5P emission datasets; and (4) to assess the spatial pattern of pollutants in the study area using Geographic Information System (GIS) and present it in such a manner that is easy to understand by the people using thematic maps.
The criteria adopted in the research for the identification of hotspots zones were based on: (1) vehicles, trucks, tricycles, and motorcycles clusters; and (2) bus stops, garages, and markets. AMAC emission hotspots inventories show that a total of thirty-one (31) hotspots locations were identified and mapped using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. In addition, on-the-spot assessment of major contributors to poor air quality in the area was performed and pictorial evidence using camera taken by the field officers during the rush hours in the morning and evening periods.
The quantitative spatial analyses of different ambient pollutants based on geospatial methodology revealed considerable emission levels at various hotspots locations with respect to tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) column density (molecules/m2). The Sentinel-5P data were analyzed to see if they could confirm these hotspots’ locations. The data however detected the presence of ambient CO, HCHO, NO2, O3, and SO2 at different hotspots locations in AMAC, Abuja. Findings from this research have unveiled the unhealthy levels of pollution at different locations in the area where there is lots of road traffic and economic activities.
However, data from the current satellite instrument cannot identify these ambient pollutants at street-level from different sites. Also, the satellite does not capture other criteria pollutants such as suspended ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine inhalable particles with diameters that are generally 2.5 micrometers and smaller (PM2.5), and inhalable particles with diameters that are generally 10 micrometers and smaller (PM10). Considering the outcome of this research, there is need for phase II of the project which will focus mainly on the use of ground-based measurement instruments and sensors in the monitoring of air quality in AMAC, Abuja. The phase II will also involve the installation of air quality billboards at the hotspots locations which will provide residents with real-time air pollution data. This future proposal mean that measurements of air quality and greenhouse gases are likely to be applied to a wide range of important outcomes including health, reduced environmental damage, and net zero emissions (Clean Air Initiative).
This project (Phase I) has enabled the Environment and Climate Change (ECC) Division to understand the current air quality status and hotspot’s locations in AMAC, Abuja. The Division is now therefore well positioned for future research in this area.
The emission of ambient pollutants because of anthropogenic and economic activities involving the utilization and conversion of energy is the key cause of environmental degradation in urban cities. The major sources of pollution are road transport, industrial emissions, and small gasoline generators aggravated by open burning and illegal dumping of waste. Urban air pollution is the major source of multiple problems:
- Smog in urban areas
- Historical buildings and monuments deterioration
- Materials damage due to increased corrosion
- Vegetation loss
- Chronic respiratory diseases due to inhalation of poisonous gases and suspended particulates.
Ambient air pollution is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. For instance, fine particulate (PM2.5) is harmful to health because it can travel through human lung barriers and enter the blood stream, causing untimely deaths, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. According to the World Bank report, exposure to ambient PM2.5 caused 2.9 million deaths in 2017 which is equivalent to 9 percent of total deaths worldwide (World Bank, 2020). Similarly, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that environmental hazards are responsible for approximately 25 percent of the total burden of disease globally (WHO, 2016).
In addition, an estimated 12.6 million people died because of living or working in an unhealthy environment in 2012 which is nearly 1 in 4 global deaths (WHO, 2016). Environmental risk factors such as air, water and soil pollution, chemical exposures, climate change, and ultraviolet radiation contribute to more than 100 diseases and injuries (WHO, 2016). There are different dangerous substances and compounds that are considered ambient pollutants and many of them released to the air, because of anthropogenic activities such as combustion of fossil fuel in automobiles and industries.
Atmospheric air pollution is the major environmental issues of the industrialized developing and developed countries globally. Both the energy production based on road vehicular traffic (Olmo et al., 2011) and fossil fuels (Meetham et al., 2016) are the key factors causing serious public health problems, from local, regional, and national levels (Sokhi and Kitwiroon, 2011; Lavaine, 2014). The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 91% of the world population lives in polluted cities, breathing contaminated air, and 7 million fatalities occur every year due to exposure to ambient air pollution and smoke from fossil fuels emission (WHO, 2020). Several studies have confirmed strong relationships between most common diseases and traffic pollution especially in big cities where CO, SO2, CO2, NO2, NOx, methane, Ozone (O3), PM10 and PM2.5 create public health degradation, for instance, chronic respiratory diseases (Raaschou-Nielsen et al., 2013; Perez et al., 2013), fertility diseases (Slama et al., 2013), cardiovascular diseases (Cesaroni et al., 2014), which affect all age groups including children (Vidotto et al., 2012).
With electricity supply unstable and off-grid solutions not yet mainstream enough to bridge demand gaps, Nigerians have relied on generators to power homes for decades. According to estimates by Access to Energy Institute (A2EI), Nigeria’s economy depends heavily on small gasoline generators with their collective capacity more than Nigeria’s national grid. The estimate also reported that Nigeria is a home to 22 million small gasoline generators which have a capacity that’s eight times larger than the national power grid (A2EI, 2019). However, research at Carnegie Mellon University found backup power generation in Nigeria produces carbon dioxide emissions equivalent to 60% of its annual electricity sector emissions (Farquharson, Jaramillo, & Samaras, 2018).
Nigeria is fast growing among the developing countries of the world and the rapid urbanization and industrialization have resulted in the remarkable increase in population of Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria and its surrounding areas, which has further led to rise in energy consumption and significant increase in vehicle fleet which has raised serious environmental concerns in the city, transport, and housing which contributed to an increase in air pollution.
The scope of this study is limited to reconnaissance survey, and identification of emission hotpot’s locations in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). The study utilizes Geographic Information System (GIS) to map and visualize pollutants concentrations for desired geographical locations and prepare hotspot maps to categorize the ambient air quality in AMAC.
1.2 General Background of the Research
Global carbon emissions from fossil fuels have significantly increased since 1900. Since 1970, CO2 emissions have increased by about 90%, with emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes contributing about 78% of the total greenhouse gas emissions increase from 1970 to 2011. Agriculture, deforestation, and other land-use changes have been the second-largest contributors (IPCC 2014).
Air pollution caused by vehicular traffic constitutes up to 90 – 95% of CO levels, 80 – 90% of NOx, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons which contributes to smog, and poor air quality posing a serious threat to human health (Savile, 1993) Africa’s largest economy has a role to play in achieving the Paris agreement, one fifth of Africans are Nigerians (NDC, 2021).
The World Bank projects that Nigeria will become the third most populous country by 2050 with over 400 million people. Nigeria is one of the highest emitters of greenhouse gas emission across Africa and most vulnerable to the impact of climate change hence Nigeria has a leadership role to play. Nigeria’s vision on climate change was set out in the 2012 climate change policy response and strategy, which is still relevant till date. The vision aims to promote low-carbon, high-growth economic development and build a climate and will also be helpful in creating awareness to the populace on emissions and possibly proffer solutions to aid the reduction of emissions. Maps pinpointing greenhouse gas emissions hotspots can help improve land management in countries preparing climate change mitigation strategies and will aid policymakers and contribute to international climate negotiations.
2.1. Aim of the Research
The study aims to identify and take spatial inventory of emission hotspots in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Abuja. This research will provide timely scientific, spatial, and technical information that is likely to improve the air quality and provide baseline data for the study area.
2.2. The specific objectives of the study
- To conduct reconnaissance survey in the study area.
- To identify emission hotspot locations in the study area.
- To validate the hotspot sampled locations with Sentinel-5P emission datasets; and
- To assess the spatial pattern of pollutants in the study area using Geographic Information System (GIS) and present it in such a manner that is easy to understand by the people using thematic maps. These maps can help the public to make informed decisions on where to live or engage in outdoor activities in the study area.
Air quality is in the news globally, whether in the context of regulatory breaches, poor visibility, traffic congestion, or health impacts. Air pollution generated due to industrial emissions can reach to a level where it can cause severe damages to human health, wildlife, and vegetation. Air pollution levels in many cities exceed the legal and World Health Organization (WHO) limits for particulate matter, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) which can be found in concentrations that are hazardous to human health. Poor air quality is causing public health problems since breathing polluted air increases the risk of deadly diseases such as lung cancer, stroke, heart disease, and chronic bronchitis. Globally, air pollution because of vehicular traffic constitutes up to 90 – 95% of CO levels, 80 – 90% of NOx posing a serious threat to human health. However, there are several health problems associated with high pollutant concentrations. For instance, NO2 causes impairment of the immune system, exacerbation of asthma, chronic respiratory diseases, reduced lung functionality, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality rate. Traffic-related atmospheric pollutants including ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm in diameter), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), black carbon (BC), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are believed to adversely impact the health of populations living and working near roadways. Proximity to major roadways and exposure to congested traffic-related atmospheric pollutants may be associated with several respiratory and cardiovascular issues including asthma, reduced lung function, adverse birth outcomes, cardiac effects, respiratory symptoms, premature mortality, and lung cancer (Health Effects Institute, 2010). A cohort study in Toronto, Canada suggested that proximity to traffic (residence within 50 m of a major road or 100 m of a highway) may be associated with an increase in circulatory mortality of over 40% (Jerrett et al., 2009).
On-road vehicles were believed to be the single largest source of major atmospheric pollutants till 1998 (USEPA, 2000; Pokharel et al., 2002) and continued to remain a great source especially in developing countries. Emission of airborne pollutants from the transport sector accounts for more than 50% of gross emission in urban and semi-urban areas (Gurjar et al., 2004; Fu, 2004; Wang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2008; Ramachandra & Shwetmala, 2009; Sahu et al., 2011).
In Nigeria, increased air pollution levels from transportation sources are on the increase in per capita vehicle ownership which has resulted in increased health risks among the urban population. Thus, an exact assessment of emissions hotspots from on-road vehicles using GIS-based approach is crucial to understand the air quality in Abuja Municipal Area Council owing to the rapidly growing population in the territory, usage of power generating plants, emission of CO, SO2, CO2, NO2, NOx, Ozone (O3), PM10 and PM2.5 from anthropogenic sources.
Project Goals/Significance of the Study
This research will provide timely scientific, spatial, and technical information that is likely to improve the air quality and provide baseline data for the study area. This will help Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Government, the Ministry of Environment, and the Ministry of Health to create policies to address urban air pollution problems, taking into consideration people that are most vulnerable to high air pollutant concentrations.
SDGS ADDRESSED BY THE PROJECT
Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.
TARGET: To reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.
Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
TARGET: To improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping, and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.
3.1. Location and description of the study area
Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria, located between latitudes 8° 25’N and 9° 25’N of the Equator and longitudes 6°45’ E and 7°39’ E of the Greenwich Meridian. It is bordered to the north by Kaduna state, to the east by Nasarawa state, to the southwest by Kogi state and to the west by Niger state. The study area, Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), is the largest most urbanized and developed area councils in Abuja (Touristlink, 2013). The bulk of the built-up area of AMAC is made up of the Federal Capital City (FCC). The FCC has five main districts, namely Asokoro, Maitama, Garki, Wuse, and Central Area and other newly developed districts Apo, Gaduwa, Gudu, Lokogoma, Kaura, Durumi, Katampe, Gwarimpa, other districts such as Kagini, Karsana, Karmo, etc, has shown recent developmental growth in the FCC.
AMAC is located between latitudes 8° 36’N and 9° 21’N of the equator and longitudes 7° 07’E and 7° 33’E of the Greenwich Meridian. It covers about 1,500sq km of the total land area (38.8%) of the Federal Capital Territory (Balogun, 2001). The 2006 National Population and Housing Census put the population of AMAC at 778,567, the highest within Abuja. The 2017 estimated population of AMAC is about 1,967,500 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2017).
Abuja has a climate classified by Köppen as tropical wet and dry. The area experiences two seasons annually, these are warm humid rainy season and a cold dry season. Fortunately, the high altitudes and undulating terrain of the FCT act as moderating influence on the weather of the territory. The rainy season begins from April and ends in October, when day-time temperature varies between 28°C and 30°C and nighttime temperature vary between 22°C and 23°C (Adeyeri et. al., 2015). In the dry season, daytime temperature can soar as high as 38°C and night time temperatures can drop to 12°C. The total annual rainfall varies between 1100 mm and 1600 mm while relative humidity is about 30% in dry season and 70% in wet season (Malik, 2004).
AMAC is located within the savanna zone vegetation of the West African sub-region. Basically, the savanna vegetation in the area can be divided into three (3) types; the park or grassy savanna that constitutes about 53% land area of the area; the savanna woodland covers about 12.8% of the area while the shrub savanna covers about 12.9% of the land area (FCDA, 1979).
Some of the economic activities carried out by the inhabitants of AMAC are fishing, farming, lumbering, trading, people working in public and private sectors as well as other activities like; carpentry, hair dressing, brick laying, taxi driving and so on. This is made possible due the presence of General markets in Wuse, Garki, Utako, and Gudu. Also, various industries, ministries, agencies and education institutions are located in AMAC (Secure Africa, 2012). In addition, AMAC is the location of the Presidential Complex, National Assembly, and the Supreme Court, and it also houses the headquarters of the Economic Community of West African States, ECOWAS (Touristlink, 2013).
Figure 1: Map showing the study area
3.2. Data Collection
The tropospheric column concentrations of air pollution datasets used in this project were produced by the TROPOMI instrument on a Sentinel-5 precursor (also called Sentinel-5P). Sentinel-5P is the first Copernicus mission to monitor the lower atmosphere, with the main purpose of reducing the data gap between ENVISAT Satellites and the launch of Sentinel-5 (Veefkind et al., 2012). The satellite carries the most advanced TROPOMI instrument for the measurement of ultraviolet-visible (270–500 nm), near-infrared (675–775 nm) and short-wave infrared (2305–2385 nm) spectral bands, which implies that it can image different air pollutants such as NO2, O3, CH2O, SO2, CH4, and CO (Galli et al., 2012). Since Sentinel-5P Level-2 data products provide atmospheric geophysical parameters and the total column of trace gases, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) datasets for 2021 were used in this study.
Table 2 depicts basic information of primary and secondary datasets used in this study and their characteristics and relevance.
Table 2: A table showing list of the datasets used for the project
|DATA||DATA TYPE||DATA SOURCE||YEAR||RELEVANCE|
|Sentinel-5P emission datasets||Secondary||European Space Agency
|2021||For air quality levels and to support public health authorities and policy.|
|GPS Coordinates||Primary||Field Investigation||2021||Mapping of emission hotspot locations.|
|Abuja Base Map||Secondary||NASRDA||2021||Delineation of state boundary, road network, and settlements.|
3.3 Field work (Reconnaissance/Validation Survey)
- A proper feasibility study and site survey of the study area was carried out to obtain the coordinates of emission hotspots locations in AMAC using a Global Positioning Systems (GPS) for validation and updates.
- Pictorial/video evidence.
3.4 Laboratory Analyses and Map Creation
Figure 2 shows the methodology flowchart which clearly depicts the procedures adopted in this study up in stages.
Figure 2: Illustration of methodology of emission hotspot mapping with integration of GIS
3.5. Time Frame
Table 1: Project activities
4.1 Reconnaissance survey and identification of emission hotspot locations
Table 3 below shows the emission hotspot locations mapped during the field exercise. A total of 31 emission hotspot locations were identified and mapped across the study area (see Figure 3). In addition, on-the-spot assessment of major contributors of emission hotspots in the area was performed and pictorial evidence taken during the rush hours in the morning and evening periods (see Figure 4).
Table 3: A table showing list of emission hotspot locations visited
|S/No||Hotspot Zone||Hotspot Locations||Latitude||Longitude|
|1.||Jabi-Berger Axis||Airport Junction||9.065158||7.410603|
|Jabi Motor Park||9.065968||7.432822|
|Life Camp Roundabout||9.075326||7.408709|
|3.||Nyanya-Karu-Asokoro Axis||AYA Roundabout||9.050887||7.529187|
|4.||APO Axis||APO Roundabout||9.012633||7.491198|
|APO Resettlement (Close to Shoprite)||8.986586||7.493374|
|APO Mechanic Village||8.973542||7.495706|
|5.||Lugbe Axis||FHA Bridge||8.978983||7.37763|
|6.||Lokogoma Axis||Galadimawa Roundabout||9.001948||7.424014|
|Lokogoma (Ebano Junction)||8.979117||7.462627|
|7.||Garki-Central Area Axis||Garki Market||9.021071||7.490845|
|Area 1 Roundabout||9.029767||7.468068|
|8.||Gwarimpa Axis||Kadobiko Market||9.099471||7.417138|
|First Avenue Entrance||9.089047||7.413138|
|9.||Mpape-Katampe Axis||Katampe Hills||9.114083||7.474851|
|Maitama by Habiba Plaza||9.104037||7.492401|
Figure 3: Spatial distribution of emission hotspot locations in the study area. (Source: Field Survey, 2021)
Figure 4: Major contributors of emission hotspots in the study area at: (a) AYA Roundabout (b) Nyanya (c) Dantata Bridge (d) Tipper Garage (e) SunnyVille Junction (f) Charlie Boy (Source: Fieldwork, 2021)
2.4.2 Quantitative Spatial Distribution of Ambient Pollution Hotspots in AMAC
The quantitative spatial analyses of different pollutants in the study area was based on geospatial processing of Sentinel-5P satellite data tropospheric CO, HCHO, NO2, O3, and SO2 column number density (molecules/m2). These satellite-based ambient pollutants were considered in this study for the validation of emission hotspots locations mapped during the field exercise.
The analyses of the maps and data revealed a considerable emission level at various hotspot locations with respect to the level of the CO pollution (Figure 5), as it maintains high values at Karu Market, Nyanya Bridge, Airport Junction, Life Camp Roundabout and First Avenue Entrance respectively. The peak in CO emission levels in these locations can be explained by the emission of CO gases in the atmosphere due to high traffic congestion and other anthropogenic sources.
The spatial analyses of Formaldehyde pollution as illustrated in Figure 6 clearly indicate the large distribution of urban-polluted hotspots in the study area with different emission levels at various locations as it retains high values at APO Mechanic Village, Karu Market, Sunnyville Junction, Galadimawa Roundabout, Dantata Bridge, Area 1 Roundabout, AYA Roundabout, Federal Secretariat, Berger Roundabout, Wuse Market, Mpape Junction and FHA Bridge respectively. Formaldehyde is one of the most important air pollutants in outdoor environment generally emitted by atmospheric reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the combustion of biomass and fuels.
The tropospheric NO2 concentrations (Figure 7) illustrates poor air quality within AMAC with overall peak emission levels at Dantata Bridge, Area 1 Roundabout, Berger Roundabout, Wuse Market, Utako Market, Jabi Motor Park, Airport Junction, Life Camp Roundabout, First Avenue Entrance, Tipper Garage and Charlie Boy respectively. However, the map reveals reduced NO2 concentrations at Karu Market, Nyanya Bridge, APO Resettlement (Close to Shoprite), etc. Road traffic and transportation generated pollution is a major contributor to NO2 polluted areas.
The spatial analyses as illustrated in Figure 8 clearly indicate the large distribution of ozone-polluted hotspots in the study area with different emission levels as it maintains high values at APO Mechanic Village, APO Resettlement (Close to Shoprite), City Gate, Garki Market, APO Bridge, APO Roundabout, Lokogoma (Ebano Junction), Sunnyville Junction, Galadimawa Roundabout, Dantata Bridge, FHA Bridge, Area 1 Roundabout, AYA Roundabout, Federal Secretariat, Berger Roundabout, Jabi Motor Park, and Airport Junction respectively. Moreover, a combination of high temperatures and solar radiation together with longer daylight time intervals favors the transformation of the NO2 gases to ozone (O3) during the dry and rainy seasons.
The tropospheric SO2 concentrations (Figure 9) depicts poor air quality in the study area with overall peak emission levels at Charlie Boy, Tipper Garage, Katampe Hills, Mpape Junction, Banex Junction, Jabi Motor Park, Utako Market, FHA Bridge, Berger Bus-stop, Lokogoma (Ebano Junction), City Gate, Garki Market, APO Bridge, APO Roundabout, Nyanya Bridge and Karu Market.
Figure 5: Validation map of average tropospheric CO column density over AMAC (Data sources: Copernicus Sentinel 5P Processed L3 products)
Figure 6: Validation map of average tropospheric Formaldehyde column density over AMAC (Data sources: Copernicus Sentinel 5P Processed L3 products)
Figure 7: Validation map of average tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide column density over AMAC (Data sources: Copernicus Sentinel 5P Processed L3 products)
Figure 8: Validation map of average tropospheric Ozone column density over AMAC (Data sources: Copernicus Sentinel 5P Processed L3 products)
Figure 9: Validation map of average tropospheric Sulphur Dioxide column density over AMAC (Data sources: Copernicus Sentinel 5P Processed L3 products)
This project (Phase I) has enabled NASRDA and other relevant stakeholder to understand the current air quality status and hotspot’s locations in AMAC, Abuja. This is a big step towards mitigating health risk, environmental damage, actualizing the Clean Air Initiative which contributes to the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Report.
Based on the outcome of this research, it is recommended that a follow-up which is a (Phase II) of the project should be carried out with the focus mainly on the use of ground-based measurement instruments and sensors in the monitoring of air quality in AMAC, Abuja. The (Phase II) will also involve the installation of air quality sensor to be displayed on an electronic billboard with map components displayed at the hotspots locations which will provide residents with real-time air pollution data. Synergies and Funding will also help grow a spatial inventory for the nation.
LIST OF MDAS THAT WILL IMPLEMENT THE RECOMMENDATION
- Federal Ministry of Environment
- Federal Ministry of Health
- Abuja Environmental Protection Board (AEPB)
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